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Моята снимка
Моят сайт: http://orlin.bravehost.com Казвам се Орлин Баев. Професионално се занимавам с психотерапия. Това е моята професия и тя съвпада с моето призвание! Обичам природата, планината, морето, безкрая. Мечтая за един свят населен с осъзнати хора, вибриращи в ритъма на любовта, мъдростта и истината!

COGNITIVE SCIENCE (Когнитивна наука)


Essay written for the course of Margaret Boden: “Creativity” during the “Summer school of cognitive science”, Sofia,Bulgaria, 2008.
Evaluation by Margaret Boden: B+

Levels of Creativity
According to Margaret Boden three levels of creativeness exist: combinational, explorative and transformational.
1) Combinational creativity
Combinational creativity requires as much informational data base as possible, so one can combine the different possibilities into creative way and choose among them the most original ones. Combinational creativity is the first, the most common and mundane level of the creative process.
2) Explorative creativity
If we compare metaphorically combinational creativity with plain, the exploratory creativity would be a mountain. It requires the cognitive processes to overcome the boundaries of the settled rules and to go on different platform.
3) Transformational creativity
Transformational creativity requires different dimension into the ordinary process. One example: if we have six sticks given and the task is four triangles to be created by them, after a some time of creative cognitive process, the cognition overpasses the limitations of the two dimensional thinking and goes in the three dimensional space – we build three sided pyramid. If the explorative creativity is a mountain, then in the case of the transformational one we have reached the peak of the mountain and we have went further – flying! ...

 Норма, талант, гений - творчество
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 "Всяко действително израстване е революционен акт  на лична революция. Това означава да се освободиш от хората, които искат да управляват живота ти!"
Ерих Фром

 Памет и невротични разстройства
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 Когато изпитваме повишена тревожност, подкорието действително черпи огромен неврален ресурс и блокира в голяма степен помненето, мисленето, вниманието. Наблюдавал съм го в самия себе си. Когато дълги години бях много тревожен, буквално бях тъпичък и като мислене и като помнене. Когато разреших тревожните си казуси и станах смел, мотивиран и щастлив, IQ-то ми скочи с десетки единици, а паметта ми за важните за мен неща стана достатъчно качествена. Наблюдавам същото в масата от пациенти. Хора интелигентни (защото на психотерапия ходят такива), но вплетени в невротични механизми, когнитивни изкривявания и динамики, пораждащи високо ниво на тревожност, комбинация от ситуативна и личностова. Когато тревожността бъде трансформирана в смело доверие в себе си, паметта отново става услужлива, но както е описано в точка (1). Страхът в твоя случай е породен от натрапливото ти желание за помнене. Колкото повече те е страх, че не помниш и се напъваш да помниш, толкова е по-висок той. Съответно и запаметяването бива повлияно. Когато си позволиш да бъдеш най-провалената и глупава, непомнеща нищо глупачка и се смириш в този си страх, приемеш го (защото е само страх, а битката ти с него битка с вятърни мелници), тогава той се стапя, преобразува се в пълна с вяра в себе си смелост и паметта става нормална. Така преобразуваш и дълбоките си характерови страхове зад външното, уж защитно "трябва" на перфекционизма.

Context Dependent Memory

“One of the most commonly noted examples of such dramatic long-term reinstatement effects is the flood of memories one experiences when returning to a former residence after a long absence.”
Examples of environmental context (EC)-dependent memory: One comes back home to his native town or goes back to the university he has spent five years and suddenly torrent of memories overwhelm him. These memories are sharp, clear, emotionally saturated and vivid - they are contextually evoked.... 

Constructive memory

Memory illusions, psychoanalytic discoveries and hypnoses as proof for constructive properties of the memory
Most of the previously discussed properties of the constructive memory: blending, transformations, reductions, simplifications, abbreviations, rationalizations, etc. – as a matter of fact might be called memory illusions, because they represent the data distorted as the illusions do.
Psychoanalyses has made great research and reached the same conclusion as the cognitive science – the autobiographic memories are actually highly incorrect and mixed up with fantasies, blending, induced by suggestions memories and interferences (retroactive). Hypnosis could not resolve these problems, as many hoped. Induced through hypnosis memories were to big extent false and had the constructive properties mentioned above.
As we see, through many various experiments, different researches observe the constructive properties of our memory. Why our memory is in such pitiful undeveloped state? What makes as such imperfect creatures? So far no one can answer correctly to these questions, regardless his scientific titles and knowledge.

Reduction and Independence of psychology. A rapprochement

Can psychology be reduced to neuroscience? Let us imagine that neuroscience has progressed immensely and each mental state, phenomena and process has its direct neurological explanation. Than really the independence of psychology would be highly threatened – but how? It would be threatened as an explanation. For example, someone is now thinking about the love and its role in life, its manifestations on cognitive, thought level, as harmonized with the society and ones own personality logical process. If we suppose that at that very moment neuroscience has dived deep enough into the brain mechanisms, it will track exactly the zones involved and the consequences of their change, the biochemical composition in different neural networks, so on. But this very neuroscience, even though quite advanced at the imagined moment, would not be able to say a word about the exact cognitive content of the explored thinking process. So far the cognitive neuroscience, neurology and biochemistry are able to grasp to large extent the perceptual and emotional life in various cognitive biological systems, including the human cognition. Neuroscience might guess indirectly about which exact emotion is triggered at the moment, on the base of its knowledge about the connection between specific subcortical zones, neurotransmitters and certain emotional states. This is enormous achievement and it deepens every year with the advancement of neuroimaging and biochemical research. We certainly already know about our neural and chemical substrates of love, affection, anger, fear, aggression, mood’s ups and downs etc. And if cognition was bounded only on perceptual and emotional levels, neuroscience definitely would replace every so far existing psychological theory as already needless. But this lucubration is pure fiction, of course. If it was so, you, the reader of these rows would see on the screen only some unknown symbols. You would not even know these letters are symbols, but would see them in a way cat see them. If emotions were the peak of our cognitive abilities, no science would exist and no philosophical discussion will be pursued. Who knows, may be somewhere in the huge space there are different lines of evolution, not always obligatory involved in logical thinking… But we can not judge about that solely on imaginary premise. In the domain of cognition, we as a sapient race are too savage and cut off from the immense possibilities of cognitive evolution in the huge space. We can draw conclusions only from our own experience and objective knowledge as sensible human race. Such sane conclusion says that the top of our cognitive abilities is the attentive process plus working memory involved in logical verbal and serial or more intuitive, massive and parallel pictorial information processing – i.e. THINKING. Is neuroscience as it is now able of capturing one single thought? One single verbal, pictorial or mixed thought?...

Waskan starts his thoughts about folk psychology citing Paul Churchland, who suggests complete discard of folk psychology due to its inability for correct explanation and prediction of human’s behavior. At least he claims so. Churchland’s filtering the information via his own mind focuses on the fact that folk psychology is unable to explain such phenomena as sleep, mental illnesses, memory, intelligent differences, so on. His critics state it is false even regarding everyday daily behavior. Churchland astonishingly for serious scientist suggests complete elimination of folk psychology from scientific discourse. Is he right? As Waskan says, the role of folk psychology (FP) actually has nothing to do with the above mentioned phenomena. It deals with the desires and believes and is included into the main stream cognitive science in wonderful scientific way...

Psychotherapy is by itself extremely broad field and consists of about 300 psychotherapeutic approaches, originating from various areas: behaviorism, clinical psychology, psychodynamic psychology, religion and different holistic systems, eastern philosophy, developmental psychology, neurosciences, linguistics, art – theatre, drawing, dance, sociology and social psychology (systems interactions), evolutionary psychology etc.
The psychotherapist could derive from wide area of academic education, preferably, but not mandatory from humanistic sciences. Further on, the prerequisite for being psychotherapist is passing long (4-10 years), demanding (financially and as a personal development) post graduate study in one of the psychotherapeutic approaches, each of them closely connected and stemming from one of the scientific areas or psychological schools mentioned above.

One of the most successful, rapid and scientifically based psychotherapeutic approaches is the “Cognitive psychotherapy”. It uses the cognitive paradigm and represents the mental processes and disorders in the language of the cognitive science / psychology...

My predictions are that brain stimulation methods will be greatly improved in the next decades – both invasive and non invasive ones. The stimulation is already done thru electro magnetic or thru biochemical stimulation. I am sure in the next years we are going to witness more and more applications of the brain stimulation: for healing purposes – for mental, affective and neurological disorders, for behavioral disorders in the case of psychopathic subjects. Another application would be two way brain/mind and machine interactions, where one will be able to control certain technological systems directly thru his mind/brain activity. With the development of the cognitive science work on brain information processing, encoding, memory storage, thinking, attention, states of mind – cognitive processes will be assisted and much improved by interaction with computerized micro chips, helping in the memory storage, attention and thinking activities.

Brain stimulation is double edged technology and undoubtedly could be used for cognitive, emotional and behavioral manipulation on personal or mass level. In the forthcoming years the technology will become more precise and the possibilities for abuse will arise. Such possibilities are widely discussed and I am not going to talk about them in this short essay, but will just say that every technology can be used for various purposes, depending on the ethics and moral values and the mind of its users. The knife can be used for fruits pealing or for killing – depends of its user. The technology alone is neither good nor bad. It is just a neutral result of the human knowledge advancement...

In two preliminary experiments the influence of mood and strategic priming on performance
on the famous Raven matrices task was measured by using the thinking aloud methodology.
Although the results did not reach statistical significance, differential effects on the usage of
searching vs. exclusion strategy was observed in Experiment 1 and the extent to which
subjects relied on superficial features vs. relations in Experiment 2...

LISA (Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogies)

The central motivation in this model is to integrate two major processes of analogy formation: memory access and structural mapping - while preserving both flexibility and sensitivity to structure.

Traditional symbolic systems maintain structure but are inflexible and the connectionist systems are just the reverse – they are very flexible, but work only at low level. Past hybrid models have lacked a natural interface between the two. The LISA model attempts to reconcile the two approaches and unify access and mapping with both structure sensitivity and flexibility...

 Analogy making

If deduction and induction are two playing teams, analogy is the stadium itself! It is the deepest cognitive ability!

“Analogy is a mapping of knowledge from one domain (the base) into another (the target), which conveys that a system of relations that holds among the base objects also holds among the target objects”

 Analogy is mapping between deep, core structures, but not between attributes or at least not only between attributes. 

According to this analysis, the contrast between analogy and literal
similarity is a continuum, not a dichotomy” ...

 Презумпции и философия на психологическата наука

Ако една теория или предположение могат да се фалшифицират, то тогава не могат да бъдат надлежно проучени от психологическата наука. Психолозите масово отхвърлят обяснения за поведение, които могат да бъдат подправени/ нагодени към нечия хипотеза. Голяма част от фройдистката психология е в тази категория, както и някои интерпретации на човешкото поведение, основани на еволюционната биология. Повечето от обясненията на психоанализата за психопатологията са интелектуално нагаждане към субективна хипотеза без каквито и да е емпирични данни. Въпреки резултатите от отделни случаи, психоаналитичните данни могат да бъдат нагодени чрез интелектуализиращи рационализации към хипотезите на теориите си и така интерпретациите представляват фалшива, псевдо наука. Също така много поведения могат да бъдат обяснени със съчиняване на история за натиска на еволюционния подбор...

 Когнитивна плоскост или плоска когнитивна наука?
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Преди време земята бе смятана за плосък център на вселената, поддържан от гигантски костенурки (слонове, великани и пр., според дадена митология)… Дори понастоящем мнозина учени не са убедени в способността на животните да чувстват (а немалко от тях дори и мислят и се самосъзнават, макар и в по-нисък порядък на тези способности), в това че в необятността на космоса има живот… Науката с малкия си, анатемосващ всеки друг подход метод дори не познава разумността и цялостната свързаност и единство на Живота. Науката е резонна в обхвата на собствените си постулати и разбирания – просто е малка.

Religion and mental Health
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This article provides an overview of psychiatric and mental health research on religion.
First, conceptual models of religion and of mental health used throughout this literature
are described. Second, published empirical research in this fi eld is summarized,
including fi ndings from epidemiologic, clinical, and social and behavioral investigations.
Third, promising theoretical perspectives for understanding a putative religion–
mental health connection are elaborated. These are based on respective behavioral,
biological, psychodynamic, and transpersonal interpretations of existing research
fi ndings. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Key words: religion, spirituality, mental health, psychiatry, research

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